Assessment of Fuels and Chemicals Production Using Solar Thermal Energy

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U.S. Dept. of Energy, San Francisco
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Sunshine to Petrol (S2P) is a technology framework using a concentrated solar energy source and energy depleted CO 2 and water feedstocks for producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels as sustainable alternatives to vulnerable and limited supplies of conventional petroleum.

S2P encompasses numerous design configurations that integrate several unit operations to thermochemically convert CO 2 and. Liquid fuel production using solar-thermal energy: Process development and technoeconomic evaluation.

Jiyong Kim, The primary energy efficiency (= chemical energy out (HHV) over total primary energy in) was calculated as % if process heat and electricity are provided from fossil fuels and % if solar power is the sole primary energy Author: Jiyong Kim, Terry A. Johnson, James E. Miller, Ellen B.

Stechel, Christos Maravelias. Arguably, solar electricity—whether from photovoltaics or concentrating solar power—can also be used to make solar fuels, but the current work is primarily concerned with processes that use solar thermal energy directly in chemical reactions to produce fuels.

Solar thermal fuels rely on the chemical transformation of materials that is Cited by: 5. Hui Hong, Hao Zhang, Tao Han, Fengjuan He, Hongguang Jin, Experimental Analyses on Feasibility of Chemical‐Looping CoO/CoAl2O4 with Additive for Solar Thermal Fuel Production, Energy Technology, /ente, 5, 9, (), ().Cited by: Figure 1.

Comparison of different fuels in terms of their energy produced and CO2 emission [1]. This review chapter consists of four sections. Following the introduction, the second section “Concentrated Solar Fuel Production Methods” reviews the different routes of producing solar fuels according to the feedstock material used in the by: 4.

In order to become a viable solution to compete with fossil fuel, solar energy-based chemical production should be robust, reliable, and economically feasible.

A strategy for minimizing the technical and financial risk inherent in such an economic transition is to develop a process based on abundant raw material resources and known chemistries. We describe a novel solar-based process for the production of methanol from carbon dioxide and system utilizes concentrated solar energy in a thermochemical reactor to reenergize CO 2 into CO and then water gas shift (WGS) to produce syngas (a mixture of CO and H 2) to feed a methanol synthesis reactor.

Aside from the thermochemical reactor, which is currently under development, the. A solar space heater collects the sun’s energy by a solar collector and directs the energy into a “thermal mass” for storage later when the space is the coldest.

A thermal mass can be a masonry wall, floor or any storage drum used specifically to absorb and store the energy. Many systems involve a distribution system and control devices to. Solar fuels refer to the harvesting of solar thermal energy to provide energy for fuel production.

McNaughton et al. () stated that amongst the processes proposed for solar fuels production, solar hybrid fuels, which are produced from an XTL process using carbonaceous feedstock combined with concentrated solar power, has the potential of.

Fig. 1: Strategy for the production of solar syngas which involves research on two paths: a long-term path via H 2 O/CO 2-splitting thermochemical redox cycles and a short-to-midterm path via thermochemical gasification of carbonaceous feedstock. Concentrated solar radiation is used as the energy source of high-temperature heat for driving these highly endothermic processes.

The generation of fuel through solar energy is a technique based on generating chemical reactions using solar chemical processes allow the generation of energy that would otherwise come from a source of fossil fuel or nuclear energy.

A great advantage of the generation of solar fuels is that they can be transported and stored easily. In order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel-based power plants, CO 2 can be captured and further processed to obtain fuels that readily integrate into the current transportation infrastructure.

This upgrading of CO 2 can be accomplished in a solar refinery, which uses sunlight as a renewable energy source to drive catalytic reactions as shown in Figure 1 (Herron et al., ). Our previous work included an assessment of energy efficiency and economic feasibility of this baseline configuration for an industrial-scale methanol plant.

We determined that an overall process energy efficiency (solar-to-fuel) of % could be achieved and a break-even price of the methanol produced using this approach would be USD/kg. exergy of TW is estimated to be destroyed during the collection and use of solar radiation for energy services.

This estimation includes the use of photovoltaics and solar thermal plants for the production of electricity and hot water. Similar estimates are shown for wind energy (TW), ocean thermal gradient (not yet exploited for energy.

Alternative methods of solar energy are discussed in Part V. In Chapter 20 we introduce different concepts related to solar thermal energy.

In Chap which is the last chapter of the regular text, we discuss solar fuels, which allow to store solar energy on the long term in the form of chemical energy. The book is concluded with an. The life cycle assessment (LCA) of the MW solar tower power plant was performed using the software tool AGP (Assessment for Green-Product) developed by the Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), based on Chinese product and environmental data.

We describe a novel solar-based process for the production of methanol from carbon dioxide and water. The system utilizes concentrated solar energy in a thermochemical reactor to reenergize CO 2 into CO and then water gas shift (WGS) to produce syngas (a mixture of CO and H 2) to feed a methanol synthesis from the thermochemical reactor, which is currently under development, the.

A decision analysis technique geared to the analysis of Sun fuels options was developed. Conventional scoring methods were combined with multi-attribute utility analysis in a new approach called the Multi-Attribute Preference Scoring (MAPS) system.

MAPS calls for the designation of major categories of attributes which describe critical elements of concern for the processes being examined. Energy Engineering Lecture Notes. This note covers the following topics: Units and Conversions, Global Energy Reserves, Energy Demand and Supply, Historical Developments in Energy, Environmental Impacts of Energy Production, Bio-Geo-Chemical Cycles, Thermal Power Plants, Hydro Power, Nuclear Power, Solar Power, Wind Power, Biomass Energy, Ocean Energy, Geothermal Energy, Hydrogen Fuel, Fuel.

A solar fuel is a synthetic chemical fuel produced from solar energy. Solar fuels can be produced through photochemical, photobiological (i.e., artificial photosynthesis), thermochemical (i.e., through the use of solar heat supplied by concentrated solar thermal energy to drive a chemical reaction), and electrochemical reactions.

Light is used as an energy source, with solar energy being.

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A review on solar thermal syngas production via redox pair-based water/carbon dioxide splitting thermochemical cycles. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews42, DOI: / Solar Thermal Fuel Market: A practical green energy source.

Solar thermal fuel is a chemical that can absorb solar radiation, store it for a longer period, and release it. Solar thermal fuels (STFs) store solar energy through light-induced changes in their molecular structure, and release the energy in the form of heat in future, as needed.

Thermal Energy Geothermal, Ocean Thermal Radiant Energy Solar Chemical Energy Oil, Coal, Gas, Biomass Nuclear Energy Uranium, Thorium 6 Sustainable Energy – Fall – Conversion. Solar Photovoltaics Wind, hydro, • Fuel production • Fuel Transport • Transmission.

Solar thermal energy (STE) is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors.

Solar thermal collectors are classified by the United States Energy Information Administration as low- medium- or high-temperature collectors. Low-temperature collectors are generally unglazed and used.

The solar thermal reduction of ZnO, using solar process heat and CH 4 or C as reducing agent, is investigated for CH 4: ZnO or C:ZnO molar ratios ranging from 0 (thermal decomposition at above about °C) to 1 (stoichiometric reduction at above about °C).

At °C, in thermodynamic equilibrium ZnO can be completely reduced using a CH 4: ZnO molar ratio of and produces one fuel. Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet.

However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs.

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This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to. Long-term storage and long-range transport of the vast, yet intermittent and unevenly distributed, solar energy resource is essential for a transition away from fossil energy ().Chemical fuels, derived from CO 2 and/or H 2 O, offer exceptional energy density and convenience for transportation, but their production using solar energy input has remained a grand challenge (2–9).

Cleaning compounds and drugs use fossil fuel chemicals. Agriculture chemicals are derived from fossil fuels. Our food is protected by fossil fuel derived plastics.

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Fossil fuels - a source of international conflict. The neglected pollutants. Kyoto Treaty. Summary. Alternative Energy Sources. Energy use. Renewable energy sources. Solar energy. First demonstration of direct hydrocarbon fuel production from water and carbon dioxide by solar-driven thermochemical cycles using rhodium–ceria.

Energy Environ. Sci. The recycling of atmospheric CO2 into synthetic fuels, using renewable energy, offers an energy concept with no net CO2 emission. We propose to implement, on a large scale, marine-based artificial islands, on which solar or wind energy powers the production of hydrogen and the extraction of CO2 from seawater and where these gases are.

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's premier laboratory for renewable energy research and development and a leading laboratory for energy efficiency R&D.

NREL is managed by Midwest Research Institute and Battelle. Established inNREL began operating in as the Solar Energy Research Institute.biomass for renewable energy fuels and chemicals Posted By Karl May Ltd TEXT ID Online PDF Ebook Epub Library and electric power as well as solid liquid and gaseous organic fuels and commodity chemicals that are manufactured from fossil fuels biomass energy .using concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of high-temperature process heat [6–8].

In previous papers we have proposed a novel solar thermochemical process, called “SynMet”, for the co-production of zinc and syngas gas by combining the reduction of ZnO with the.